LANGUAGES OF EUROPE
Languages of Europe and phraseology research

The languages spoken in Europe (in its strictly geographical sense) are estimated at 150-200. They extend over five unrelated language families and Basque, an isolated language. Up to the present day, less than 20% of the languages of Europe have been represented in phraseology research, and reliable phraseological data exist for less than 10% of the European languages.

Missing languages

We would ask all members of the European Society of Phraseology, experts of as many languages as possible, for their cooperation. The following European languages are particularly needed:

  • Indo-European: Armenian; Romance languages: Corsican, Friulian, Gascon; the Iranian languages on the European side (e.g. Ossetic)
  • most of the Uralic languages: Mansi and many Finno-Ugric languages (e.g. Permyak). Other languages still need substantial support: Komi-Zyrian, Karelian, Mari, Mordvin Erzya, Mordvin Moksha, North Sami, Udmurt, Vepsian.
  • most of the Altaic languages: Kalmyk and most of the Turkic languages on the European side, e.g. Crimean Tatar, Gagauz, Kazakh, Nogai, Tatar etc.
  • most of the Caucasian languages, i.e. the Abkhaz-Adyge, Nakh-Dagestanian and Kartvelian phyla


Dialects and non-European languages are also welcome.

Map of the European languages represented in the project „Widespread Idioms” (Some languages have joined the project recently, e.g. Gaelic, Venetian, Mirandese, Armenian and Kazakh: They are not depicted on the map)

Abbreviations of the language names

Indo-European language family: the Germanic, Romance, Celtic, Baltic, Slavonic and Indo-Iranian languages, Albanian, Armenian and Greek
Uralic language family: the Finno-Ugric languages and Tundra Nenets (belonging to the Samoyed languages)
Altaic language family: the Turkic languages and Kalmyk (a Mongolian language)
Caucasian languages: the North East Caucasian, West Caucasian and South Caucasian languages
Semitic language family
Basque (an isolated language)


Alb   Albanian Aro   Aromanian Azb   Azerbaijani Bas   Basque
Blr   Belorusian Bos   Bosnian Bre   Breton Bul   Bulgarian
Cat   Catalan Cor   Cornish Cro   Croatian Cze   Czech
Dan   Danish Dut   Dutch Eng   English Erz   Erzya Mordvin
Est   Estonian Far   Faroese Fin   Finnish Fre   French
Frp   Franco-Provençal Gal   Galician Geo   Georgian Ger   German
Gre   Greek Hun   Hungarian Ice   Icelandic Iri   Irish
Ita   Italian Kar   Karelian Kas   Kashubian Kom   Komi-Zyrian
Krm   Karaim Lad   Ladin Lat   Latvian Lit   Lithuanian
Log   Low German Lux   Luxemburgish Mac   Macedonian Mal   Maltese
Mar   Mari Mok   Moksha Mordvin Nfr   North Frisian Nor   Norwegian
Occ   Occitan Pol   Polish Por   Portuguese Prv   Provençal
Rms   Romansh Rom   Romanian Rus   Russian Sam   Sami
Sar   Sardinian Sco   Scots Ser   Serbian Sle   Slovene
Slo   Slovakian Sor   Upper-Sorbian Spa   Spanish Swe   Swedish
Swg   Swiss German Tat   Tatar Tur   Turkish Udm   Udmurt
Ukr   Ukrainian Vep   Veps Wel   Welsh Wfr   West Frisian
 


*Yiddish and some dialects cannot be depicted on the map.